Brevier Technical Ceramics






1 Introduction

2 The History of Technical Ceramics

3 Ceramic Materials
3.1 Definitions
3.2 Materials Groups
3.3 Classification
3.4 Material Descriptions


3.4.1 Silicate Ceramics Technical Porcelain Steatite Cordierite Mullite Ceramics
3.4.2 Oxide Ceramics Aluminium oxide Magnesium Oxide Zirconium Oxide Zirconium Oxide Toughend Aluminium Oxide Aluminium Titanate Titanium Dioxide Barium Titanate Lead zirconate titanate Sintered fused silica
3.4.3 Non-oxide Ceramics Carbides Silicon carbide Boron carbide Nitrides Silicon nitride SIALONs Aluminium Nitride


3.4.4 Special materials Composite fibre-ceramic materials Metal matrix composites

4 From Powder to Part
4.1 Manufacture


4.1.1 Raw Materials and Additives
4.1.2 Body preperation
4.1.3 Forming
4.1.4 From Forming to Firing
4.1.5 Dimensions and Shrinkage
4.1.6 Machining

4.2 Finishing


4.2.1 Hard machining
4.2.2 Surface Characteristics Ground Surfaces Honed surfaces Lapped surfaces Polished surfaces
4.2.3 Metallisation
4.2.4 Glazing and Enamelling (“engobe”)
4.2.5 Ceramic Coatings

5 Properties of Technical Ceramics
5.1 General Comparison

5.2 Classification of Useful Properties
5.3 Mechanical properties

  5.3.1 Density
5.3.2 Porosity
5.3.3 Strength Bending Strength Compression strength Tensile strength Weibull modulus Stress Intensity Factor
5.3.4 Elastic Properties Elastic modulus Transverse contraction Shear modulus Crack Growth Creep properties
5.3.5 Hardness
5.4 Thermal Properties
  5.4.1 Thermal conductivity
5.4.2 Coefficient of linear expansion
5.4.3 Thermal Shock Resistance

5.5 Electrical Properties

  5.5.1 Electrical Resistance
5.5.2 Permittivity
5.5.3 Dielectric Loss Factor
5.6 Corrosion
  5.6.1 Corrosion mechanisms Surface corrosion and selective corrosion Defect Site Corrosion Intergranular Corrosion
5.6.2 Corrosion Types Liquid phase corrosion Acids Alkaline Solutions and Molten Alkalis Water Corrosion From Melts Non-metallic melts Molten metals Corrosion by (Hot) Gases
5.6.3 The Determination of Corrosion Liquid phase corrosion Test conditions Determining the Level of Corrosion Corrosion in the Melt Test conditions Determining the level of corrosion Hot Gas Corrosion
5.6.4 Concluding Comments
5.7 Wear
  5.7.1 Tribology Friction Tribological systems
5.7.2 Types of wear
5.7.3 Abrasion mechanisms
5.7.4 Stresses and their effects
5.7.5 Measurements of Abrasion
5.7.6 Special examples The measurement of abrasion in model systems Protection against abrasion Cutting
6 Areas of Application
6.1 Mechanical Engineering
6.2 High-temperature Technologies
6.3 Electrical Engineering
6.4 Electronics
6.5 Medical Technology
7 Ceramics-appropriate design
7.1 The Design Sequence
7.2 Design Notes
  7.2.1 Influence of Material Properties
7.2.2 Influence of the Forming Process
7.2.3 Modular Design
7.3 Cost-Effectiveness
  7.3.1 Component Costs in Principle
7.3.2 Component Costs in Mass Production
7.3.3 Cost-Effectiveness in the System
7.4 Design for Strength
7.5 The Design of Parts
  7.5.1 Basic Rules
7.5.2 Ways to Improve Loading Capacity
7.5.3 Examples Keep Shapes Simple Avoid Stress Concentrations Minimise Tensile Stresses Avoid Material Accumulations Minimise Final Finishing Manufacturing-Specific Details
7.6 Summary of Important Guiding Principles
8 Joining and Bonding Techniques
8.1 Principles
8.2 Methods
  8.2.1 Friction and Interlock-Based Joints Avoid Stress Concentrations Prioritise Compressive Stress Avoid Impact Stress Bear Thermal Expansion in Mind Careful Introduction of Force Adapt Force Transfer
8.2.2 Potting with Plastic
8.2.3 Gluing Types of Glue Example: Torque Transmission Further Applications
8.2.4 Soldering Soft Soldering Hard Soldering Active Soldering Measures to be Taken
9 Quality
9.1 Planning Quality
9.2 Producing Quality
9.3 Managing Quality
9.4 Tests (Q-Certificates)
9.5 Quality Control Techniques
10 Appendix
10.1 Bonding Types and Strength

10.2 Materials Comparison
10.3 General Tolerances for Dimensions and Shapes
  10.3.1 Tolerances and Function
10.3.2 General Dimensional Tolerances "As Fired" Ceramic Hard Machined Ceramic
10.3.3 General Shape Tolerances "As Fired" Ceramic Hard Machined Ceramic
10.3.4 Practical Examples of Current Technology Abrasion Protection Plates Plates as Kiln Furniture Transport Rollers for Roller Kilns
10.4 Agreeing Test Procedures
10.5 Measurement Procedures
  10.5.1 Bending Strength 3-point Bending Test 4-Point Bending Test
10.5.2 Hardness
10.5.3 Elastic Modulus
10.5.4 Surfaces Definitions Hard Machined Surfaces Material ratios Mr Roughness profiles
10.6 Quality
  10.6.1 Statistical Assessment – Summary
10.6.2 Statistical Methods Computation Magnitudes Control Cards Process Flow Analysis
10.6.3 Statistical Process Control
10.7 Standards Relevant to Technical Ceramics
  10.7.1 General
10.7.2 Test Procedures for Powders
10.7.3 Test Procedures for Monolithic Ceramics
10.7.4 Test Procedures for Composite Materials
10.7.5 Test Procedures for Layers
10.7.6 Application Standards
10.7.7 Other Standards Quoted
10.8 Unit Conversion
10.9 Tables of Properties
  10.9.1 Materials According to DIN EN 60 672-3 Alkali - Aluminium Silicates (C 100) Magnesium Silicates (C 200) Titanates (C 300) Alkaline Earth – Aluminium Silicates (C 400) Aluminium and Magnesium Silicates (C 500) Mullite (C 600) and Aluminium Oxide (C 700) Other Oxides (C 800) and Non-Oxides (C 900)
10.9.2 Non-classified high-performance materials Oxide Ceramics Carbides Nitrides Other Materials
10.9.3 Summary of Chemical Resistance
11 Bibliography
12 Register


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